In this section we will see illustrations related to joints. These allow the union between two bones or between a bone and a cartilage. The most important functions of the joints are to constitute points of union between the components of the bone system (bone, cartilage), and to facilitate mechanical movements, providing elasticity and plasticity to the body. In this type of illustrations we will see that osteoarthritis causes the deterioration of the articular cartilage. This causes the bones to wear out and pain appears, as the cartilage disappears. The bone reacts and grows on the sides (osteophytes) causing the deformation of the joint. We will see in these illustrations that osteoarthritis can occur in the hips, knees, hands, feet and spine, the first three being the most frequent. This causes pain and directly affects the mobility and autonomy of the person. The most common exercises can become a big obstacle to face every day, due to mobility limitations.
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In this type of medical illustration, we will see that the fracture is a break in the bone. Fractures generally occur due to car accidents, falls, or sports injuries. Other causes are bone loss and osteoporosis, which causes weakening of the bones.
In these illustrations we will also see that the causes for a bone to break can be very varied. The fracture can be: Closed: It is when the bone breaks and the skin remains intact. Open: It implies the presence of an open wound and the outside of the fractured bone. Normally these can be framed within one of these four categories: Oblique fracture: It is a break of the bone in an inclined way. Comminuted fracture: It is one in which the bone is fractured into two or more fragments. Spiral fracture: The break occurs in a spiral around the bone, it is a torsion injury. Compound or open fracture: It is a type of fracture where the bone protrudes through the skin.